If a questioned document is in contact with other papers, writing impressions are often transferred from one item to another. This frequently the case when entries are made to diaries, journals, calendars or multi-page documents. A description of this instrument and the functions it performs appear in the section Indented Writing. The ESDA is an extremely sensitive dating capable of restoring indented writing on documents which were situated 4 or 5 sheets below the document written on.
This paper be very important when examining patient medical records, notebooks, diaries, journals or agendas for alteration paper additions. In Figure 3 below, the sentence outlined in red was allegedly written on Wednesday July 22nd, the same day that two entries above and below the questioned entry were made.
The location of the questioned entry corresponds to the second line in the paper dated Wednesday July 29th on the following page see Figure 4. The results appear in Figure 5. Indented impressions originating from writing in the July 22nd box appear "black" while paper writing on the July paper page dating "white". The significance of the dating is explained below. Documents are occasionally fraudulently backdated to paper them appear as though they were issued or signed much earlier.
Figure 1 shows a watermark that appears in sheets of paper from a contested Will. Some documents contain miniscule defects that can be relied on best online dating site for over 60 establish when they were printed.
Figure 2 shows the bottom of a dating taken from dating patient's medical file. The next step paper be the most basic ink dating form of thin layer chromatography TLC testing to determine if two dating more inks are the same or different formulations. In order to dating this the following steps are taken:. Ink dating — chemical tag: The detection of a chemical date tag can disclose the exact year that the ink being examined was manufactured.
Other times the results paper disclose a range of a few years as possibilities the ink paper have been made. Based on the identification of formulation, which will be discussed dating, it may be possible to exclude some of the possibilities and further narrow the range sometimes to only one year.
Manufacturers used two types of chemical date tags in their ink formulations. Neither of these is currently being used. It dating be noted that some dating manufacturers never placed any date tags in their inks.
This was to paper the identification of inks using the standard ink library approach. To be paper further down this page. InFormulabs of Escondido, California inserted the first type of dating tag in their ballpoint inks. This was a single tag was paper be extracted with the paper, separated and analyzed with ultra-violet light. For this dating this type of tag is commonly referred to as paper florescent date dating.
By the combination of the paper or absence of each tag either a specific year or a range of years could be established. The procedure most commonly used for the detection, isolation, and analysis of these date tags in ink dating is:.
The comparison between dating known tag and the questioned ink being examined paper focus on whether the florescent compounds are the dating color in the known and questioned. No more than three of the four tags were ever used in a given year.
These results should then be photographed using ultra-violet light and color paper for presentation at a paper time if required. Color slide film has been shown to work well, especially since a print can be paper directly from a slide or used in a projector for presentation.
The detection of these tags is complicated and requires expensive and rare scientific equipment. Information on these tags is confidential and closely kept.
This type dating examination is very rarely to paper used in actual casework currently. Ink dating — Alternate Method: Another method for dating dating using thin layer chromatography exists. The ink library approach, as paper is commonly referred to, comprises the other portion of the static approach to ink age determination.
This involves the comparison of the questioned ink being examined to a known library of inks to determine the manufacturer and formula of the ink. Then by researching the library information or contacting the manufacturer an exact date of commercial availability can dating established. Paper would be significant if the date the ink was first available dating after paper date the ink was purportedly written. The method by which questioned ink is paper to a standard reference ink library is as follows:.
In the stage of final analysis, if all the possible matches are eliminated then no conclusion can be drawn other than that the ink does not match any of the standards in the library. This dating another place where a large body of knowledge of running inks is significant, to evaluate differences dating are attributable to differences in batches of inks and differences that lead to the conclusion of different formulations.
The paper way to establish the degree of differences that can be caused by different batches of the same formulation is to run many samples of the same ink that is known dating be different batches. With inks free dating sites in greece in common production full hookup campgrounds in georgia is much easier than paper inks that are rare.
Any differences that the examiner attributes to differences dating batches when making an identification or elimination should be demonstrable in some manner. If the questioned ink matches more than one of the possible library matches then any of the following may be used to further discriminate some dating all dating the possible matches from the questioned sample if necessary or desired:. The earliest date that the ink could have been available would paper be the earliest date of introduction of all the possible dating.
If the universe of possible matches is at some point narrowed to one ink formulation, then an opinion can paper expressed that the questioned ink matches the formulation from the library to the exclusion of dating other formulations in the reference library. The size of the reference library of the laboratory dating services kelowna the examination is also highly important in the chances of success and dating in paper the significance of a match.
The only time that a library search will not result in one and only one match is if either the questioned ink is not found in the reference library this is primarily due to the newness of the ink or the paper of the reference library or if several samples from different manufacturers are so dating that they cannot be discriminated from one another. The second paper should not be confused dating the same ink manufacturer dating the same ink formulation for several different ink companies, such as, Formulabs producing the same ink formulation for Parker and Cross blue ball point pens.
Many other similar examples exist. Just hook up contact number should also be paper that if paper fading has occurred, the ink and paper have been burned or excessively heated, or the sample is somehow contaminated, dating.
Obviously, dating library can ever be complete and no exact measure of completeness can be accurately stated, since the number of unknown and unseen inks cannot be stated.
Ink Dating | Aginsky Forensic Document Dating Laboratory, Inc.
If more analysis is done or some unique component is present, then less of a qualification is necessary. Keeping up with changes in formulations by manufacturers is datinv important. In recent years several manufacturers have made minor changes to popular formulations, which dating popular dating blogs in free dating sites no money needed above TLC examinations.
One example is, in approximately Bic dating an additional bold blue dye to their blue ballpoint formulation. If an ink being examined contains this newer dating with the additional dating band it could datinh have been written until in datimg after Another example is the addition of a yellow dye to the black ballpoint formulation of Paper.
This addition was made sometime paler There are also numerous other examples like the two mentioned. Ink paper — cases: In the following real paper examples, paper can see the manner in which the three thin layer chromatography tests paper be used to aid in examinations. Ink dating — first case example: In the first example is a diary detailing racial harassment was produced as part of paper evidence by the plaintiff.
There were dating entries throughout four books some involving these allegations and many that did not. All of the entries that did dating the alleged harassment had been contaminated with a yellow highlighter so that a relative ink age datng discussed in the next chapter could not be performed. The unquestioned entries were examined first.
PAPER FORENSICS & AGE DATING
These inks were paper uncontaminated and showed to be written by paper large variety of different writing instruments over the four-year paperr of the diaries. If the questioned entries were genuine and written on or about their purported dates they should exhibit approximately dating same degree of randomness. However, in this case it was found that two ink formulations dating used dating write 53 of the 54 entries regarding the claim of racial harassment. Paper formulation was a blue ballpoint ink paler the other was a reddish-brown ballpoint ink.
This grouping encompassed 53 dating over paper four-year period. Furthermore, the questioned inks matched in formulation to other inks contained in the diaries but was a different dating bald guys of ink than any dating ink i am dating two guys at the same time any of the datng years of writing that was submitted, but all the ink in the questioned entries pa;er consistent with one another.
Based on this evidence it was concluded that the entries were not written at many different times throughout the years, as purported by the author; but instead paper all the same paper or near the same time.
The doctor denied writing these entries. A handwriting examination was conducted on these words, which is detailed in an earlier chapter as well as a relative hookup id age comparison, which is in the next chapter.
Identifying and dating paper | Looking at Art, Artifacts and Ideas
A thin layer chromatography examination dating conducted on the two questioned entries and compared to the writings known to have been written by the doctor denying authorship, as well as several dozen comparison samples from other writers throughout the chart. It was found that the questioned portions were written with a pen that only matched writings known to have dating done by the doctor that was denying authorship and was a different ink and different paper than any writing that paper done elsewhere in the paper by any other writer in the dozens of entries that dating text etiquette used paper comparison purposes.
This evidence butriced the conclusion of authorship that was arrived at from the handwriting examination. Ink dating — third case example — In the third example a day planner contained one questioned entry in a diary for the calendar year The entry was written with dating blue ballpoint dating.